Concept Of Special Needs People
The terminology disability, handicap, and impairment are frequently used or misused interchangeably in literature. Disability denotes a physical, physiological, mental, or sensory abnormality, whereas handicap refers to the consequences caused by the disability. A handicap is the extent and degree to which a disability hinders, limits, or restricts an individual's involvement in certain activities or tasks for which a normal body function is needed. Disability therefore results in activity limitation or participation restriction as a result of the presence of a physical or physiological dysfunction that an individual may present. The World Health Organization (1980) has defined an impairment as any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure or function. The degree to which an impairment poses a handicap is a function of the extent and degree of the impairment itself. Impairment relates to disability in that both occur as a result of loss of function of an anatomical or physiological nature that limits activity or restricts the individual's contribution. For example, blindness, for instance, causes activity limitation (disability) and social/occupational participation restriction (handicap). Old Age or the Infirm, for instance, causes activity limitation (disability) and social/occupational participation restriction (handicap). These are Special Needs People.